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Oyo town

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The empire's third layer was the Egbado Corridor southwest of Yorubaland. This area was inhabited by the Egba and Egbado , and guaranteed Oyo's trade with the coast.

The Egba and Egbado tributaries were allowed, like their Yoruba counterparts, to rule themselves. They were, however, supervised by Ajele. The lead representative of Oyo in the corridor was the Olu, ruler of the town of Ilaro.

Ajaland was the last layer added to the empire. It was the most restive and distant, and kept in line with threats of expeditions against it.

The tributary chiefs sometimes made war on other peoples to capture slaves for this purpose. The Oyo Empire developed a highly sophisticated political structure to govern its territorial domains.

Scholars have not determined how much of this structure existed prior to the Nupe invasion. After reemerging from exile in the early 17th century, Oyo took on a noticeably more militant character.

The influence of an aggressive Yoruba culture is exemplified in the standards placed on the oba king and the roles of his council.

The oba meaning 'king' in the Yoruba language at Oyo, who was referred to as the Alaafin of Oyo Alaafin means 'owner of the palace' in Yoruba , was the head of the empire and supreme overlord of the people.

This was done by sending Bashorun The prime minister to present either an empty calabash or a dish of parrot 's eggs to him and pass a sentence of rejection, known as Awon Eniyan Koo i.

According to tradition, the Alaafin was expected to commit ritual suicide thereafter. The Oyo Empire was not a purely hereditary monarchy, nor was it an absolute one.

He was not always closely related to his predecessor, although he did have to be descended from Oranmiyan , a son of Oduduwa , and to hail from the Ona Isokun ward which is one of the three royal wards.

This sometimes led the crown prince , known as the Aremo, to hasten the death of his father. Inorder to prevent this occurrence, it became traditional for the crown prince to be made to commit ritual suicide upon his father's death.

Independent of the succession, the Aremo was quite powerful in his own right. For instance, by custom the Alaafin abstained from leaving the palace, except during the important festivals, which in practice curtailed his power.

By contrast, the Aremo often left the palace. This led the noted historian S. Johnson to observe: "The father is the king of the palace, and the son the king for the general public".

The Alaafin of Oyo appointed certain religious and government officials, who were usually eunuchs. All sub-courts of Oyo had Ilari who acted as both spies and taxmen.

While the Alaafin of Oyo was supreme overlord of the people, he was not without checks on his power.

The Oyo Mesi were seven principal councillors of the state. They constituted the Electoral Council and possessed legislative powers. Led by the Bashorun, acting as prime minister, and consisting of the Agbaakin, the Samu, the Alapini, the Laguna, the Akiniku and the Ashipa, they represented the voice of the nation and had the chief responsibility of protecting the interests of the empire.

The Alaafin was required to take counsel from them whenever any important matter affecting the state occurred.

Each also had a deputy whom they would send to the Alaafin if their absence was unavoidable. The Oyo Mesi developed as a check on the Alaafin's power, preventing the Alaafin from being an autocrat ; they compelled many Alaafins to commit suicide during the 17th and 18th centuries.

The head of the council of Oyo Mesi, the Bashorun, consulted the Ifa oracle prior to the royal succession for approval from the gods.

New alaafins of Oyo were therefore seen as being appointed by the gods. They were regarded as Ekeji Orisa, meaning "deputy of the gods.

For example, the Bashorun orchestrated many religious festivals; he did this in addition to being commander-in-chief of the army, which gave him considerable independent religious authority.

Chief among the responsibilities of the Bashorun was the all important festival of Orun. This religious divination, held every year, was to determine if the members of the Mesi still held favour with the Alaafin.

If the council decided on the disapproval of the Alaafin, the Bashorun presented the Alaafin with an empty calabash, or parrot's eggs, as a sign that he must commit suicide.

This was the only way to remove the Alaafin because he could not legally be deposed. Once given the calabash or the parrot's eggs, the Alaafin, his eldest son the Aremo, and his personal counselor within the Oyo Mesi, the Asamu, [32] all had to commit suicide in order to renew the government.

The suicide ceremony took place during the Orun festival. The Oyo Mesi did not enjoy an absolute power either.

While the Oyo Mesi wielded political influence, the Ogboni represented the popular opinion backed by the authority of religion, and therefore the views of the Oyo Mesi could be moderated by the Ogboni.

There were checks and balances on the power of the Alafin and the Oyo Mesi and thus no one was arrogated absolute power. The Ogboni was a very powerful secret society composed of aristocratic freemen noted for their age, wisdom and importance in religious and political affairs.

A testament to how widespread the institution was is the fact that there were and still are Ogboni councils at nearly all sub-courts within Yorubaland.

There was a high degree of professionalism in the army of the Oyo Empire. There was also an entrenched military culture in Oyo where victory was obligatory and defeat carried the duty of committing suicide.

The Oyo Empire was the only Yoruba state to adopt cavalry ; it did so because most of its territory was in the northern savannah.

Late 16th and 17th century expeditions were composed entirely of cavalry. Oyo could not maintain its cavalry army in the south but could raid at will.

Cavalry in highly developed societies such as Oyo was divided into light and heavy. Infantry in the region around the Oyo Empire was uniform in both armour and armament.

All infantry in the region carried shields, swords and lances of one type or another. The Oyo Empire, like many empires before it, used both local and tributary forces to expand its domains.

The structure of the Oyo military prior to its imperial period was simple and closer aligned to the central government in metropolitan Oyo.

This may have been adequate in the 15th century when Oyo controlled only its heartland, but to make and maintain conquest farther away, the structure underwent several changes.

Oyo maintained a semi-standing army of specialist cavalry soldiers called the Eso , the Esho or, formally, the Eso of Ikoyi. The Eso were led by the Are-Ona-Kakanfo, [28] and were famous for living by a warrior code that was comparable to the Latin dictum infra dignitatem.

After Oyo's return from exile, the post of Are-Ona-Kakanfo was established as the supreme military commander. Since the Are-Ona-Kakanfo could not reside near the capital, arrangements had to be made for the latter's protection in case of emergency.

The major markets in the city include the Akesan market, the Ajegunle market, the Owode market, the Saabo market, Oparinde Oja-Oke market and the Irepo market.

The city is centrally located on the dual carriage A1 expressway from Lagos which links it from Ibadan all the way to " Ilorin.

Death and the King's Horseman , a play by the Nobel laureate Wole Soyinka , is based on an incident that happened in Oyo in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

City in Oyo State, Nigeria. Picture taken of calabash carving in Oyo, Oyo, of present-day Nigeria. Shortlet Apartments in Oyo town, Oyo.

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